Skip navigation

Investigating aubergines in China

5 Posts tagged with the solanum tag
0

Hainan Island

Posted by Sandy Knapp Mar 4, 2010

Rice_paddies_DSC_1930.jpg
Rice paddies

 

Left Haikou through the most amazing traffic jam of people going back to school, work, you name it. After a few more roadside solanum collections, we entered the central part of the island. It is essentially a huge garden – mostly cultivated in neat squares. Here the rice has been planted in paddies – it is the most luminescent green, and every field has a person in it weeding, planting or just generally tending to things.

 

Horsemen_DSC_1958.jpg

Horsemen

 

In the little roadside face where we ate lunch a poster of Mao, Zhou and Liu and their Marshals was on the wall – it reminded me of the horsemen of the apocalypse! On the facing wall was one of the generals similarly astride horse with flowing manes all rushing headlong to somewhere.

 

Limushan_DSC_2006.jpg

Limushan

 

Our destination for today was Limushan Nature Reserve in the mountainous part of Hainan; here the peaks are up to 1400 metres above sea level and although they look completely clothed with forest, they were heavily logged all the way to the tops in the early part of the 20th century. Now, however, the area is a provincial reserve and the loggers have new jobs as park rangers. The forest is interesting, with an understory of bamboo and rattans and some very big trees of Podocarpus (a timber tree) and others. Given time, it will probably recover, especially if the protection continues. Rubber is planted right up to the edge of the Reserve, and Caribbean pines – so the edge is at risk.

 

Firecracker_tree_DSC_1966.jpg

Firecracker tree

 

The forest was incredibly dry – it is dry season and it has been a very dry year, so it was a bit disappointing on the solanum front, but we did see some rather lovely other plants, like the firecracker tree – a tree first described from Hainan (Rademachera hainanensis) in the Bignoniaceae, or catalpa family).

0

Fireworks_DSC_1905.jpg

Fireworks

 

Well, the end of the Chinese Spring Festival (New Year holiday) sure puts Guy Fawkes night to shame! In the week I have been here firecrackers have been everywhere, but this evening the really big guns came out. For an full hour and a half (and maybe a bit longer) spectacular fireworks went off in a park by the Hainan Government buildings near Century Bridge - it is obvious these are a Chinese invention. Several hours later I still hear booms and bangs from all directions - it will go on all night. This is really ending things with a bang!

 

Hainan_Univ_DSC_1875.jpg
Hainan University


The solanums of Hainan are still awaiting us; we ended up staying in Haikou as the park we were going to was closed for the holiday. So we spent the day in the herbarium of Hainan University instead. The collection is tiny, eaten by insects and kept in a very poor condition, but what the botanists lack in facilities they make up in enthusiasm. We were treated very kindly by Professor Yang; it was a real pleasure to have the day in town - something I usually would never say! Tomorrow we head for the mountains in the centre of the island, one of the few places native vegetation remains.

0

Collecting.jpg

Collecting at the roadside

 

Today proved that plant collecting is not all forests and mountains - as we left the limestone region aubergine relatives began to reappear (solanums do not like limestone soil in general). So we spent most of the day sitting in the middle of roads, near buffalo enclosures, collecting and measuring aubergine relatives. Jin Xiu is taking population samples in each village, so we collect and measure each plant we find.

Bombax_ceiba.jpg

Bombax ceiba, the red silk cotton tree

 

Once onto the flat lands of south Guangxi we drove through kilometre after kilometre of sugar cane - all being harvested and the fields burned - the air was heavy with smoke. As in the mountains all the work was being done by hand, and all in searing 34 degree heat. The hero tree (Bombax ceiba, also known as the red silk cotton tree) is common in these regions - the flowers are the size of a fist and pollinated by birds.

Solanum_praetermissum.jpg

Solanum praetermissum

 

We crossed the Shiwen Dashan (million large mountains) Nature Reserve on our way to Dongxing on the coast where we found Solanum praetermissum - a relatively rare species endemic to SE Asia that grows on cliffs; I had collected its clsoe relative in Yunnan in 2007 - it was great to see this species really is quite different!

Rhododendron_ShiwenMtns.jpg

Rhododendron in the Shiwen mountains

0

From Nanning we went north (backwards!) to try to find a locality where an old collection of Solanum macaonense, an enigmatic aubergine relative, had been collected. We failed in that, but did find Solanum torvum (pea eggplant commonly used in Thai cooking) growing in the rubbish dump of Gansu – solanums often grow in the most unsalubrious places!

Rubbish_Solanum23Feb.jpgFields_Naling23Feb.jpg


On the rubbish heap  (click to enlarge images)           Fields, Naling

 

 

Near Gansu there was ample evidence of the threats to these beautiful and biologically interesting limestone hills – mining for stone and gravel is all but destroying many of them, by next year these will be completely gone, along with the endemic flora that grows there.

 

We carried on, passing fields with many people working to prepare for planting, harvesting sugarcane and manioc. Manioc is grown as a starch crop here, where I know it better in South America it is a staple food crop. My companions were surprised at this and asked an elderly man if they ever ate it - he replied something like only if we have to! It is amazing that fields of such extent are all prepared, fertilized and planted by hand, and ploughed by water buffalo.

 

Solanum_violaceum23Feb.jpgCollecting_violaceum23Feb.jpg

Solanum violaceum                                                                      Collecting Solanum violaceum


We went to look at the base of some cliffs, found a cave tomb with the deceased in a jar so he/she could be moved if necessary and in the brush found our first exciting solanum – Solanum violaceum. This is a common species, but I am interested in comparing it carefully throughout its range to other species that may or may not be the same.

 

Field_in_rocks23Feb.jpgPolytunnels23Feb.jpg

Field in rocks                                                                                         Polytunnels


Turning south off the main road to head for the Jing Xi, a town near the Vietnamese border, we went through a region of extensive banana cultivation, where many of the crops were being grown as seedlings in polytunnels – the fields looked white striped. This is not only to increase the heat, but to save water – we saw a man with a funnel and a bucket watering each seedling in the tunnel by hand. There has been a severe drought in this region this year – it shows.

nrLongHo_Mtn23Feb[1].jpg

Near Long Ho

 

We then crossed some spectacular limestone mountains, where the Long Ha Nature Reserve is said to be home to monkeys. In these mountains every square inch of cultivatable land is cultivated – between rocks and in spectacular terraces in all the valleys (like near Naling, where the rice paddies were being readied for planting and followed the contours of the land beautifully).

1

Aubergines await in China

Posted by Sandy Knapp Feb 18, 2010

Well, tomorrow is the big day for  going to China! If I can get through today  with Darwin’s  Birthday lectures and all the loose ends to tie up here at the NHM, it will be a  miracle.

 

Jin Xiu and Tiangang will meet me “outside” Beijing Terminal 3 – hmmmm  – I hope I find them! We then go straight to another part of the airport to fly  to Guangxi, bypassing completely freezing cold Beijing. Aubergines  await.

 

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources-rx/images/solanum-melongena-04_54095_1.jpg



Sandy Knapp

Sandy Knapp

Member since: Jan 21, 2010

I'm Sandy Knapp, a botanist here at the Museum. I'm travelling in China to study the origins and domestication of aubergines with my colleague Wang JinXiu from the Institute of Botany in Beijing. Let's see what happens.

View Sandy Knapp's profile