Each female sandfly can develop more than 100 eggs, usually using blood-meal proteins. 

They lay the eggs in moist soil or organic matter, which contains the food of the 4 instars of the mobile but legless larvae. This includes faeces in rodent burrows, where the adults:

  • emerge from pupation
  • rest during the day, in between their nocturnal dispersals in search of:
    • blood meals
    • sugar meals
    • mates
    • shelter 

(See Parvizi et al., 2003 for a review)