Many flaviviruses infect humans and can cause anything from a mild flu-like illness to death. For example, in the case of yellow fever virus, which is related to Nakiwogo virus, there are an estimated 200,000 cases of human infection, causing 30,000 deaths, worldwide each year. Or for dengue, approximately 500,000 people with severe infection require hospitalization each year, a very large proportion of whom are children.



Nakiwogo virus seems to infect and reproduce new copies of itself in mosquitoes only, because it grows in culture dishes in the laboratory that contain thin sheets of mosquito cells, but it does not seem to grow in other types of cells.