Distribution and habitat


Cristatella mucedo is found in North America, the British Isles, Europe and Asia.


It prefers still or slowly-moving waters but is otherwise broadly tolerant.

Cristatella mucedo colonies have been found in recently-formed gravel pits through to well-established sites (Okamura 1997) and from oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions.

Colonies are found attached to a range of natural and artificial substrata where they are protected from sedimentation – such as undersides or vertical faces.

Natural substrata include

  • submerged branches
  • roots
  • rocks
  • macrophytes

Artificial substrata include

  • pier pilings
  • tyres
  • buoys
  • plastics