Homo neanderthalensis, otherwise known as Neanderthals, were probably our closest relatives. Neanderthals were humans but they were a different species from us, Homo sapiens. Homo neanderthalensis evolved in Europe and Asia while we were evolving in Africa.
Fossils are known from the southerly regions of western Eurasia in both glacial and interglacial periods, while mitochondrial DNA data suggest they expanded as far as Siberia at times.
Learn about the form and structure of Homo neanderthalensis, find out about its evolutionary and genetic history.
Discover where Neanderthal fossils are known and the type of habitat the species lived in as well as population trends and feeding patterns.
Find out about the behaviour of this early human species, including its feeding habits and the diseases that it was affected by.
Homo neanderthalensis is thought to have been largely similar to Homo sapiens. Learn about the average size, growth patterns, life expectancy and physiology of this species.
Get reference material for Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo neanderthalensis (Kebarah) burial site
Homo neanderthalensis (Swanscombe 1) cranium
Homo neanderthalensis (calpicus) cranium
Neanderthal stone tools