• Biggs, DC (1976) Nutritional ecology of Agalma okeni and other siphonophores from the epipelagic Western North Atlantic Ocean. PhD thesis submitted jointly to MIT and Woods Hole.
  • Biggs, DC (1977) Field studies of fishing, feeding and digestion in siphonophores. Marine Behaviour and Physiology 4(4): 261-274.
  • Mapstone, GM (2009) Siphonophora (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) of Canadian Pacific waters. National Research Council of Canada Research Press, Ottawa. 
  • Pugh, PR (1999) Siphonophorae. In South Atlantic Zooplankton I. Edited by D Boltovskoy. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. pp 467-511.
  • Purcell, JE (1980). Influence of siphonophore behaviour upon their natural diets: evidence for aggressive mimicry. Science 209: 1045-1047.
  • Purcell, JE (1984) The functions of nematocysts in prey capture by epipelagic siphonophores (Coelenterata, Hydrozoa). The Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) 166(2): 310-327.

Identify other British siphonophores:

  • Kirkpatrick, PA and Pugh, PR (1984) Siphonophores and velellids. In Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series). Edited by DM Kermack and RSK Barnes. Number 29. EJ Brill, Leiden.