Taxonomy

Morphology

The mining larva is typical of other flies - it is a legless maggot without a head capsule. The mouthparts comprise a uniquely Diptera cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton.

The larval and pupal anterior spiracles are elongated and unbranched at the tip.

The posterior spiracles have numerous spiracular bulbs not organized in a circle or semicircle.

Look-alikes

The species is similar to the exclusively Nearctic American holly leaf miner, Phytomyza ilicicola, the adult of which is larger and with the mesonotum less densely covered with fine hairs.

Glossary
Frass

Debris produced by burrowing insects.

Mesonotum

The upper surface of the middle segment of the thorax.

Petiole

The stalk of a leaf.

Spiracles

Openings that allow gas exchange in insects.

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