Mandragora caulescens is found in the southeast Qinghai, west Sichuan, east Xizang and northwest Yunnan regions of China.
It can also be found in Bhutan, India and Nepal.
M. caulescens is found at high elevations (2,200–4,200m) on pastures, open moorland and grassy or stony slopes.
The precise current distribution is not well known.
Surveys of this species in the field will help uncover its habitats and microhabitats.