Ventral view of the head of showing the maxillipede coxosternum.The specimen is the holotype, deposited in the Museu Nacional, Universidade do Rio de Janeiro
Compared to other Scolopendrini, distinctive features of Scolopendropsis and the closely related South American genus Rhoda include the following:
Ultimate trunk tergite and ultimate leg pair of Scolopendropsis duplicata. © Amazonas Chagas, Jr
The close similarity between Scolopendropsis duplicata and S. bahiensis, and the geographic distribution of the former at the periphery of the range of the more widespread S. bahiensis, are consistent with the possibility of direct descent of S. duplicata from S. bahiensis.
Minelli et al. (2009) suggested that the N (21-23) and 2N (39-43) gap in trunk segment numbers between the two species may have involved a duplicative process of segmentation.