Adult Rhinatrema bivittatum are found in moist soil and leaf litter in lowland rainforest.
They are occasionally seen on the surface, mostly during and after heavy rainfall and at night.
Like other caecilians, R. bivittatum is carnivorous and feeds on a variety of soil and leaf litter invertebrates, but no specific studies have been carried out.
Other species of rhinatrematid lay terrestrial eggs and have aquatic larvae. We might expect Rhinatrema to reproduce in the same way, but no data have been published to date.