Laonastes aenigmamus is listed as Endangered (Aplin & Lunde, 2008) as it has a range of less than 5,000 km2, being largely confined to the Khammouan Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation Area.

Laonastes aenigmamus is currently undergoing continuing decline due to

  • area and quality of habitat, 
  • number of mature individuals due to hunting
    • the locals hunt the rock rat for food 
    • the first specimens were found for sale as meat at a market in 1996.