In 1971, to protect Brahmaea europaea, an interesting and rare endemic species, the Italian Forestry Commission designated the natural reserve 'Grotticelle'. This site of around 200 hectares was the first protected area in the world established to preserve a lepidopteran.
However, in spite of being protected, the B. europaea is still threatened by:
Practical solutions to the problem of artificial lighting could include
The species would certainly benefit from an expansion of the natural reserve as the moth is now known to occur in a much wider area.
The species has not been evaluated by CITES or IUCN and, perhaps surprisingly, is not even listed in the red book of Italian invertebrates.