Distribution and ecology


Fredericella sultana occurs in

  • Europe
  • Asia
  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • Very rarely in North America

(Wood and Backus, 1992)


Fredericella sultana is one of the most common freshwater bryozoans. It is usually found in flowing or turbulent waters but also inhabits ponds, lakes and canals.

Colonies can often be found in great profusion on submerged tree roots, aquatic plants, stones, wood, plastics and man-made objects such as piers and boat hulls.


Freshwater bryozoans feed mainly on small suspended phytoplankton and bacteria (Kaminski 1984).

Colonies may contribute to nutrient cycling in the local habitat during periods of vigorous growth (Raddum and Johnsen 1983).