Dendrolimus pini , the Pine tree lappet moth, is widespread and common in Europe and much of the Palaearctic region, but it has only recently been found to be breeding in Britain.
Unfortunately, this spectacular species can be a serious pest of forestry trees, and there is concern that it will need to be controlled. Pest outbreaks of this species are more likely in hot dry years.
In contrast, the possibility that it might be an overlooked native species could make it a conservation priority. Further research is needed to clarify its status.
Curiously, all the specimens recorded so far have been males. Elsewhere in the UK, this species occurs only as a very rare vagrant.
It seems most likely that this species is established as the result of importation with conifers or timber. However, the possibility that it is a previously overlooked resident is not yet disproved. The area in which it has been found is not well known entomologically.
Pine-tree lappet, Scotland, June 2009
Male Pine-tree Lappet moth
Female Pine-tree Lappet moth