Habitat and distribution

So far several bryozoan host species have been identified (Canning and Okamura 2004; Tops et al. 2005):

  • Plumatella spp
  • Hyalinella punctata
  • Lophopodella carteri
  • Fredericella sultana

B. plumatellae has been observed in:

  • UK
  • France
  • Belgium
  • Germany
  • Switzerland
  • Austria
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • USA


The general habitats are those of freshwater bryozoan (lakes, ponds and rivers) but not every bryozoan population is infected with this parasite. Infections seem to be persistent.

Currently data are too sparse to infer any habitat preferences.

Trophic strategy

The worms lack a gut. Dissolved nutrients from the bryozoan coelomic fluid are taken up via the outer body wall.