Sixty plants or plant products are included in this virtual book. Note that some product types (for instance, 'herbs' or 'edible oils') contain information on more than one plant species.

For each plant or product chapter, information is arranged on 8 pages as follows:

  1. Summary - brief details about the plant
  2. Wild relatives - the wild relatives of the domesticated form, including its possible ancestors
  3. Origins of cultivation - evidence for the first uses of a plant by humans
  4. Early uses - early methods of processing, and uses for the crop that have now become obsolete
  5. Transfer and spread - how use of the plant or product spread around the world
  6. Agriculture - the agricultural history of a plant, showing how often the use of a crop has changed considerably in history
  7. Modern context - how new technology enables new products from plants, often changing traditional patterns of use
  8. Post harvest - the modern processing of the raw material created when a crop is harvested

These chapter headings are listed to the left of the page - select one to view the corresponding chapter.

To view a different plant or product, select it from the drop-down menu at the top right of the page - the system will display the current chapter for the new plant (for example, if you are viewing 'Origins of cultivation' for apples, and you select 'Bananas and Plantains' the system will display the Bananas and Plantains 'Origins of cultivation' chapter).

From: Seeds of trade (

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