Code of Conduct

for the conservation and enjoyment

of wild plants

Most people reading this code will support the voluntary plant conservation organisations in their efforts to halt the decline in the native flora of Britain and Ireland and to ensure that all our wild flowering plants, ferns, mosses, liverworts, lichens, algae and fungi remain for future generations to enjoy. Wild plants are a key to the enjoyment of the countryside, primarily for their appeal in their natural surroundings but also because of the pleasure they give photographers, naturalists, flower arrangers and cooks. Generally, uprooting is harmful, but picking with care and in moderation usually does little damage and can foster the appreciation of wild plants, which in turn benefits their conservation. However, in some cases picking can be harmful and it may even be illegal. This leaflet has been written for botanists, teachers and people who wish simply to enjoy wild plants. It aims to indicate where collecting and picking are acceptable and which wild plants should not be taken.


Wild plants and the law

All wild plants are given some protection under the laws of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. This leaflet summarises the relevant legislation in the UK, but does not attempt to cover that of the Republic of Ireland (although a list of species protected in Ireland is included). The Isle of Man and the Channel Islands are not covered by UK law.

Under the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981, which covers Britain, it is illegal to uproot any wild plant without permission from the landowner or occupier. Uproot is defined as to ‘dig up or otherwise remove the plant from the land on which it is growing’, whether or not it actually has roots; and, for the purposes of the legislation, the term ‘plant’ includes algae, lichens and fungi as well the true plants – mosses, liverworts and vascular plants. Similar general protection is given to all plants in Northern Ireland, under the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order, 1985.

Even plants growing wild are the legal property of somebody, and under the Theft Act, 1968, it is an offence to uproot plants for commercial purposes without authorisation.

Plants in protected areas

A variety of statutory designations are used for sites of high nature conservation interest, including National Nature Reserves, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in Britain and Areas of Special Scientific Interest (ASSIs) in Northern Ireland. Owners and occupiers may be prosecuted if they destroy plants growing in these sites or remove plant material, unless they have first consulted the statutory conservation agencies (English Nature, the Countryside Council for Wales, Scottish Natural Heritage or the Environment and Heritage Service, Northern Ireland). It is illegal to pick, uproot or remove plants if by-laws are in operation which forbid these activities, for example on Nature Reserves, Ministry of Defence property or National Trust land.

Specially protected plants

Both the Wildlife and Countryside Act and the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) order contain a list (Schedule 8) of endangered plants, which are protected against intentional picking, uprooting and destruction (unless a licence is obtained from the relevant authority, or the damage is a result of a lawful activity and could not reasonably have been avoided). These plants are also protected against sale. In addition, there are two species (Bluebell in Britain and Primrose in Northern Ireland) which are listed for protection only against sale. Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act is revised every five years. Current lists of the species afforded special protection in Britain and in Northern Ireland are given in this leaflet.

International protection

Certain internationally rare wild plants are given legal protection throughout the European Community, as a result of the ‘Habitats’ Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC). The nine vascular plants which occur in the UK which require protection against deliberate picking, collecting, cutting, uprooting, destruction and sale are listed below. Regulations apply to all stages in the biological cycle of these plants, so seeds and spores are protected as well as mature specimens. All these species are also included in Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act.

Some wild plants are protected against international trade under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The only UK species to which CITES applies are Snowdrop Galanthus nivalis, if this is native, and all the orchids.

The Habitats Directive also requires the establishment of a European network of protected sites (Special Areas of Protection) for the conservation of important habitats and rare species. SACs are to be designated in the UK for the nine species listed above and four other plants – two liverworts and two mosses:

All thirteen of the plants listed above also require protection against deliberate picking, collecting, cutting, uprooting, possession and sale under the Council of Europe’s Bern Convention (Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats), which covers an area wider than the European Union. The Bern Convention requirements are implemented in the UK by the inclusion of these species in Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act.

Introduction of alien plants

It is an offence, without a licence, to plant or cause to grow in the wild any plant listed on Schedule 9 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act or on Schedule 9 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order. These schedules include alien plants which may pose a threat to our native flora. The lists are revised from time to time and the current ones for Britain and Northern Ireland are given in this leaflet.

Picking and collecting

This leaflet provides guidance for people who wish to pick plants for pleasure, pursue botanical studies, collect specimens for educational purposes or gather wild food for individual or family use. It does not address commercial gathering of plant material. The aim is to promote the conservation of wild plants, whilst encouraging the enjoyment of the countryside. This means that picking is acceptable in some cases, but in other circumstances plants are better left for others to enjoy.

Rare plants

Information on plants in danger of extinction nationally or locally are published in national Red Data Books and County Rare Plant Registers. Rare plants are not necessarily protected by law, but none of them should be picked for pleasure. If you are not a specialist it may be difficult to know which they are: a good rule of thumb is that if a plant looks unusual, or if there is very little of it, resist the temptation to pick it. Take only those plants with which you are familiar and which you know are widespread and plentiful in the area. Lists of rare species can be obtained from the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, or viewed on its web site.

Botanical collecting

Collecting small amounts of plant material for identification purposes, for private herbaria, for research or as voucher specimens is usually acceptable, except in the case of protected or Red List species. Indeed, collecting is often necessary if botanical expertise is to be developed. Unless you are authorised, do not collect if there is any suspicion that the plant is a Red List species or if the population is very small and may suffer as a result. If a plant can be named in the field take the field guide to it, not vice versa. If a specimen really is needed, remove the minimum quantity of material, for instance a leaf or a single flower from an inflorescence, just a few stems from a moss cushion, a small part of a lichen or alga colony, or a single fungus fruit body.

Where and how much to pick

Be careful not to trespass when picking plants and never take material from a nature reserve or protected site without permission. Untended road verges and public rights of way are often good sources of wild flowers, but look out for traffic!

Educational groups

Teachers and leaders of field meetings are reminded that it is their responsibility to obtain permission from landowners, ensure that groups comply with the law and follow these guidelines. A large group of people can unwittingly do considerable damage if care is not taken. Unrestricted collecting by enthusiastic students may endanger local plant populations.

Fruits, seeds and fungi

Non-commercial gathering of berries, nuts and mushrooms for the table is a traditional use of the countryside and probably does no harm to the plant, providing it is carried out in moderation and the plant is common. However, many plants and fungi are poisonous, so never eat anything unless you are sure that it is safe to do so. Collecting wild flower seed for private gardening must also be done sparingly and only common species should be gathered. English Nature has produced a separate code for the conservation of fungi, together with guidance for those who collect mushrooms to eat. Please contact EN at the address given below.


Plant photography is enjoyed by many people, but should be done with care. ‘Gardening’ before taking photographs may unnaturally expose a plant or give away the site of an unusual species. Bear in mind, too, that nearby plants, including seedlings and slow-growing, inconspicuous mosses and lichens, can inadvertently be crushed.

Safeguarding habitats

Unintentional damage can be caused by well-meaning people, so remember that trampling can kill vegetation and lead to soil compaction. If you visit a rare plant, avoid doing anything which may alter its surroundings or expose its location to collectors. Avoid publicising the sites of rare species, but inform your local Wildlife Trust, botanical society recorder, or statutory conservation agency about new finds, as they can help to safeguard the plants and their habitats. Respect requests from conservation bodies or landowners not to visit particular sites at certain times.

Introducing plants to the wild

As mentioned above, it is an offence to introduce to the wild seeds, propagules or mature plants of any ‘Schedule 9’ species. There are many other alien species which are invasive and can be detrimental to our native flora, so alien plants should never be intro-duced to the wild. Aquatic plants such as Canadian Pondweed Elodea canadensis and New Zealand Pygmyweed Crassula helmsii can be particularly damaging, so do not tip unwanted material from aquaria into streams or ponds. Moving even native plants about the country can be unwise. Now, the main emphasis of conservation is to maintain native plants within their natural ranges. Introductions may disturb natural patterns of distribution, which can be subtle and involve sub-species and varieties. Many plants have been introduced into the wrong places, and inappropriate, even foreign, strains have been released. There is therefore a strong presumption against casual introductions. Do not introduce seed or other living plant material to the wild unless this is part of a well organised scheme sanctioned by your local wildlife trust or botanical society, or by one of the statutory conservation organisations. A leaflet giving advice and sources of native seed for the garden is available from the BSBI.

Enjoying plants abroad

Wild plants and their habitats around the world are threatened. Remember to follow the principles of this code when visiting other countries. Make sure that you are familiar with the nature protection laws of your host country.


Addresses of the Statutory Agencies responsible for plant conservation

Joint Nature Conservation Committee

Monkstone House, City Road, Peterborough PE1 1JY



English Nature, Northminster House, Peterborough PE1 1UA



Scottish Natural Heritage, 2/5 Anderson Place, Edinburgh EH6 5NP



Countryside Council for Wales, Plas Penrhos, Ffordd Penrhos, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2LQ


 Northern Ireland

Environment and Heritage Service, Northern Ireland, Commonwealth House

35 Castle Street, Belfast BT1 1GU

see, not the official site but even points to it.


Republic of Ireland

The Department of Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands, 51 St Stephen’s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland




Addresses of the voluntary societies that protect wild plants

Botanical Society of the British Isles



British Bryological Society



British Lichen Society



British Mycological Society



 British Phycological Society



British Pteridological Society






Wildflower Society




Plants included in Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981

Plants specially protected in Great Britain (revised 1998).


Chara canescens Bearded Stonewort

Lamprothamnium papulosum Foxtail Stonewort


Battarraea phalloides Sandy Stilt-puffball

Boletus regius Royal Bolete

Buglossoporus pulvinus Oak Polypore

Hericinum erinaceum Hedgehog Fungus


Alectoria ochroleuca Alpine Sulphur-tresses

Bryoria furcellata Forked Hair-lichen

Buellia asterella Starry Breck-lichen

Caloplaca luteoalba Orange-fruited Elm-lichen

Caloplaca nivalis Snow Caloplaca

Catapyrenium psoromoides Tree Catapyrenium

Catillaria laureri Laurer's Catillaria

Catolechia wahlenbergii Goblin Lights

Cladonia convoluta Convoluted Cladonia

Cladonia stricta Upright Mountain-cladonia

Collema dichotomum River Jelly-lichen

Enterographa elaborata New Forest Beech-lichen

Gyalecta ulmi Elm Gyalecta

Heterodermia leucomelos Ciliate Strap-lichen

Heterodermia propagulifera Coralloid Rosette-lichen

Lecanactis hemisphaerica Churchyard Lecanactis

Lecanora achariana Tarn Lecanora

Lecidea inops Copper Lecidea

Nephroma arcticum Arctic Kidney-lichen

Pannaria ignobilis Caledonian Pannaria

Parmelia minarum New Forest Parmelia

Parmentaria chilensis Oil-stain Parmentaria

Peltigera lepidophora Ear-lobed Dog-lichen

Pertusaria bryontha Alpine Moss-pertusaria

Physcia tribacioides Southern Grey Physcia

Pseudocyphellaria lacerata Ragged Pseudocyphellaria

Psora rubiformis Rusty Alpine Psora

Solenopsora liparina Serpentine Solenopsora

Squamarina lentigera Scaly Breck-lichen

Teloschistes flavicans Golden Hair-lichen


Adelanthus lindenbergianus Lindenberg's Leafy Liverwort

Geocalyx graveolens Turpswort

Gymnomitrion apiculatum Pointed Frostwort

Jamesoniella undulifolia Marsh Earwort

Lophozia (Leiocolea) rutheana Norfolk Flapwort

Marsupella profunda Western Rustwort

Petalophyllum ralfsii Petalwort

Riccia bifurca Lizard Crystalwort

Southbya nigrella Blackwort


Acaulon triquetrum Triangular Pygmy-moss

Anomodon longifolius Long-leaved Anomodon

Bartramia stricta Rigid Apple-moss

Bryum mamillatum Dune Thread-moss

Bryum neodamense Long-leaved Thread-moss

Bryum schleicheri Schleicher's Thread-moss

Buxbaumia viridis Green Shield-moss

Cryphaea lamyana Multi-fruited River-moss

Cyclodictyon laetevirens Bright-green Cave-moss

Desmatodon cernuus Flamingo Moss

Didymodon cordatus Cordate Beard-moss

Didymodon glaucus Glaucous Beard-moss

Ditrichum cornubicum Cornish Path-moss

Grimmia unicolor Blunt-leaved Grimmia

Hamatocaulis (Drepanocladus) vernicosus Slender Green Feather-moss

Hygrohypnum polare Polar Feather-moss

Hypnum vaucheri Vaucher's Feather-moss

Micromitrium tenerum Millimetre Moss

Mielichhoferia mielichhoferi Alpine Copper-moss

Orthotrichum obtusifolium Blunt-leaved Bristle-moss

Plagiothecium piliferum Hair Silk-moss

Rhynchostegium rotundifolium Round-leaved Feather-moss

Saelania glaucescens Blue Dew-moss

Scorpidium turgescens Large Yellow Feather-moss

Sphagnum balticum Baltic Bog-moss

Thamnobryum angustifolium Derbyshire Feather-moss

Zygodon forsteri Knothole Moss

Zygodon gracilis Nowell's Limestone-moss

Vascular plants

Ajuga chamaepitys Ground-pine

Alisma gramineum Ribbon-leaved Water-plantain

Allium sphaerocephalon Round-headed Leek

Althaea hirsuta Rough Marsh-mallow

Alyssum alyssoides Small Alison

Apium repens Creeping Marshwort

Arabis alpina Alpine Rock-cress

Arabis scabra Bristol Rock-cress

Arenaria norvegica Norwegian Sandwort

Artemisia campestris Field Wormwood

Atriplex pedunculata Stalked Orache

Bupleurum baldense Small Hare's-ear

Bupleurum falcatum Sickle-leaved Hare's-ear

Carex depauperata Starved Wood-sedge

Centaurium tenuiflorum Slender Centaury

Cephalanthera rubra Red Helleborine

Chenopodium vulvaria Stinking Goosefoot

Cicerbita alpina Alpine Sow-thistle

Clinopodium menthifolium Wood Calamint

Coincya wrightii Lundy Cabbage

Corrigiola litoralis Strapwort

Cotoneaster cambricus Wild Cotoneaster

Crassula aquatica Pigmyweed

Crepis foetida Stinking Hawk's-beard

Cynoglossum germanicum Green Hound's-tongue

Cyperus fuscus Brown Galingale

Cypripedium calceolus Lady's-slipper

Cystopteris dickieana Dickie's Bladder-fern

Dactylorhiza lapponica Lapland Marsh-orchid

Damasonium alisma Starfruit

Dianthus armeria1 Deptford Pink

Dianthus gratianopolitanus Cheddar Pink

Diapensia lapponica Diapensia

Eleocharis parvula Dwarf Spike-rush

Epipactis youngiana Young's Helleborine

Epipogium aphyllum Ghost Orchid

Equisetum ramosissimum Branched Horsetail

Erigeron borealis Alpine Fleabane

Eriophorum gracile Slender Cottongrass

Eryngium campestre Field Eryngo

Filago lutescens Red-tipped Cudweed

Filago pyramidata Broad-leaved Cudweed

Fumaria reuteri Martin's Ramping-fumitory

Gagea bohemica Early Star-of-Bethlehem

Gentiana nivalis Alpine Gentian

Gentiana verna Spring Gentian

Gentianella anglica Early Gentian

Gentianella ciliata Fringed Gentian

Gentianella uliginosa Dune Gentian

Gladiolus illyricus Wild Gladiolus

Gnaphalium luteoalbum Jersey Cudweed

Hieracium attenuatifolium Weak-leaved Hawkweed

Hieracium northroense Northroe Hawkweed

Hieracium zetlandicum Shetland Hawkweed

Himantoglossum hircinum Lizard Orchid

Homogyne alpina Purple Colt's-foot

Hyacinthoides non-scripta2 Bluebell

Lactuca saligna Least Lettuce

Leersia oryzoides Cut-grass

Limosella australis Welsh Mudwort

Liparis loeselii Fen Orchid

Lloydia serotina Snowdon Lily

Luronium natans Floating Water-plantain

Lychnis alpina Alpine Catchfly

Lythrum hyssopifolium Grass-poly

Melampyrum arvense Field Cow-wheat

Mentha pulegium Pennyroyal

Minuartia stricta Teesdale Sandwort

Najas flexilis Slender Naiad

Najas marina Holly-leaved Naiad

Ononis reclinata Small Restharrow

Ophioglossum lusitanicum Least Adder's-tongue

Ophrys fuciflora Late Spider-orchid

Ophrys sphegodes Early Spider-orchid

Orchis militaris Military Orchid

Orchis simia Monkey Orchid

Orobanche artemisiae-campestris Oxtongue Broomrape

Orobanche caryophyllacea Bedstraw Broomrape

Orobanche reticulata Thistle Broomrape

Petroraghia nanteuilii Childing Pink

Phyllodoce caerulea Blue Heath

Phyteuma spicatum Spiked Rampion

Polygonatum verticillatum Whorled Solomon's-seal

Polygonum maritimum Sea Knotgrass

Potentilla rupestris Rock Cinquefoil

Pulicaria vulgaris Small Fleabane

Pyrus cordata Plymouth Pear

Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Adder's-tongue Spearwort

Rhinanthus angustifolius Greater Yellow-rattle

Romulea columnae Sand Crocus

Rumex rupestris Shore Dock

Salvia pratensis Meadow Clary

Saxifraga cernua Drooping Saxifrage

Saxifraga cespitosa Tufted Saxifrage

Saxifraga hirculus Yellow Marsh-saxifrage

Schoenoplectus triqueter Triangular Club-rush

Scleranthus perennis Perennial Knawel

Scorzonera humilis Viper's-grass

Selinum carvifolia Cambridge Milk-parsley

Senecio paludosus Fen Ragwort

Stachys alpina Limestone Woundwort

Stachys germanica Downy Woundwort

Tephroseris integrifolia ssp. maritima South Stack Fleawort

Teucrium botrys Cut-leaved Germander

Teucrium scordium Water Germander

Thlaspi perfoliatum Perfoliate Penny-cress

Trichomanes speciosum Killarney Fern

Veronica spicata Spiked Speedwell

Veronica triphyllos Fingered Speedwell

Viola persicifolia Fen Violet

Woodsia alpina Alpine Woodsia

Woodsia ilvensis Oblong Woodsia

1Protected in England & Wales only 2Protected only against sale


Plants on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order, 1985

Plants specially protected in Northern Ireland (Schedule under review in 1999).


Vascular plants

Adoxa moschatellina Moschatel

Ajuga pyramidalis Pyramidal Bugle

Andromeda polifolia Bog-rosemary

Calamagrostis stricta Narrow Small-reed

Carex magellanica Tall Bog-sedge

Carex pauciflora Few-flowered Sedge

Centaurium littorale Seaside Centaury

Cirsium heterophyllum Melancholy Thistle

Dactylorhiza traunsteineri Narrow-leaved Marsh-orchid

Dryas octopetala Mountain Avens

Elatine hydropiper Eight-stamened Waterwort

Eleocharis parvula Dwarf Spike-rush

Epipactis palustris Marsh Helleborine

Epipactis phyllanthes Green-flowered Helleborine

Erica vagans Cornish Heath

Erigeron acer Blue Fleabane

Frangula alnus Alder Buckthorn

Geranium sylvaticum Wood Crane's-bill

Gymnocarpium dryopteris Oak Fern

Hammarbya paludosa Bog Orchid

Hierochloe odorata Holy-grass

Hordelymus europaeus Wood Barley

Hottonia palustris Water-violet

Hypochaeris glabra Smooth Cat's-ear

Lathyrus palustris Marsh Pea

Limonium binervosum s.l. Rock Sea-lavender

Limosella aquatica Mudwort

Lycopodiella inundata Marsh Clubmoss

Melampyrum sylvaticum Small Cow-wheat

Mentha pulegium Pennyroyal

Mertensia maritima Oysterplant

Monotropa hypopitys Yellow Bird's-nest

Neottia nidus-avis Bird's-nest Orchid

Ophrys apifera Bee Orchid

Orchis morio Green-winged Orchid

Orobanche hederae Ivy Broomrape

Orthilia secunda Serrated Wintergreen

Pilularia globulifera Pillwort

Polystichum lonchitis Holly Fern

Primula veris Cowslip

Primula vulgaris1 Primrose

Pseudorchis albida Small-white Orchid

Ranunculus fluitans River Water-crowfoot

Rubus chamaemorus Cloudberry

Saussurea alpina Alpine Saw-wort

Saxifraga aizoides Yellow Saxifrage

Saxifraga hirculus Yellow Marsh-saxifrage

Saxifraga oppositifolia Purple Saxifrage

Silene acaulis Moss Campion

Sisyrinchium bermudiana Blue-eyed Grass

Spiranthes romanzoffiana Irish Lady's-tresses

Stachys officinalis Betony

Teesdalia nudicaulis Shepherd's Cress

Trichomanes speciosum Killarney Fern

Trollius europaeus Globe-flower

Viola persicifolia Fen Violet

1 Protected only against sale


Plants included in Schedule 9 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981

Plants which may not be planted or otherwise caused to grow in the wild in Great Britain (schedule under review in 1999).



Asparagopsis armata Hooked Asparagus Seaweed

Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides Green Seafingers

Laminaria japonica Japanese Kelp

Macrocystis angustifolia Macrocystis integrifolia Macrocystis laevis Macrocystis pyrifera Giant kelps

Pikea californica Red Californian Seaweed

Porphyra spp. except P. amethystea, P. leucosticta, P. linearis, P. miniata, P. purpurea P. umbilicalis All Laver Seaweeds except native species

Sargassum muticum Japanese Seaweed

Undaria pinnatifida Wakame

Vascular plants

Fallopia japonica Japanese Knotweed

Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed


Plants on Schedule 9 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order, 1985

Plants which may not be planted or otherwise caused to grow in the wild in Northern Ireland.


Macrocystis pyrifera Giant Kelp

Sargassum muticum Japanese Seaweed

Vascular plants

Acaena (all species) Pirri-pirri Bur

Fallopia japonica Japanese knotweed

Fallopia sachalinensis Giant Knotweed

Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed

Spartina (all species) Cord-grass



Republic of Ireland

No attempt has been made here to explain how Irish law differs from Great Britain and Northern Ireland in respect to wildlife protection. The following is a list of Protected Vascular Plant Species in the Republic as listed under the Flora Protection Order, 1987. The relevant legislation in Ireland is the Wildlife Act, 1976 and Statutory Instruments are issued under this Act. The relevant Government Department is called The Department of Arts, Culture & Gaeltacht and copies of the relevant legislation are obtainable from the Government Publications Office, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2.

Allium schoenoprasum Chives

Arabis petraea Northern Rock-cress

Arenaria ciliata ssp. hibernica Irish Sandwort

Asparagus officinalis Wild Asparagus

Asplenium obovatum Lanceolate Spleenwort

Asplenium septentrionale Forked Spleenwort

Astragulus danicus Purple Milk-vetch

Calamagrostis epigejos Wood Small-reed

Campanula trachelium Nettle-leaved Bellflower

Cardamine impatiens Narrow-leaved Bitter-cress

Carex depauperata Starved Wood-sedge

Centaurium pulchellum Lesser Centaury

Clinopodium acinos Basil Thyme

Colchicum autumnale Meadow Saffron

Cryptogramma crispa Parsley Fern

Deschampsia setacea Bog Hair-grass

Epilobium alsinifolium Chickweed Willowherb

Erica ciliaris Dorset Heath

Eriophorum gracile Slender Cottongrass

Filago minima Small Cudweed

Galeopsis angustifolia Red Hemp-nettle

Gnaphalium sylvaticum Heath Cudweed

Groenlandia densa Opposite-leaved Pondweed

Gymnocarpium robertianum Limestone Fern

Hammarbya paludosa Bog Orchid

Helianthemum nummularium Common Rock-rose

Hordeum secalinum Meadow Barley

Hydrilla verticillata Esthwaite Waterweed

Hypericum canadense Irish St John’s-wort

Hypericum hirsutum Hairy St John’s-wort

Inula salicina Irish Fleabane

Kickxia elatine Sharp-leaved Fluellen

Lathyrus japonicus Sea Pea

Lotus subbiflorus Hairy Bird's-foot-trefoil

Mentha pulegium Pennyroyal

Mertensia maritima Oysterplant

Minuartia recurva Recurved Sandwort

Misopates orontium Weasel’s-snout

Najas flexilis Slender Naiad

Oenanthe pimpinelloides Corky-fruited Water-dropwort

Orchis morio Green-winged Orchid

Ornithopus perpusillus Bird's-foot

Otanthus maritimus Cottonweed

Papaver hybridum Rough Poppy

Persicaria vivipara Alpine Knotweed

Pilularia globulifera Pillwort

Polygonum maritimum Sea Knotgrass

Pseudorchis albida Small-white Orchid

Puccinellia fasciculata Borrer’s Saltmarsh-grass

Pyrola rotundifolia Round-leaved Wintergreen

Ranunculus tripartitus Three-lobed Crowfoot

Sanguisorba officinalis Great Burnet

Sarcocornia perennis Perennial Glasswort

Saxifraga granulata Meadow Saxifrage

Saxifraga hirculus Marsh Saxifrage

Saxifraga nivalis Alpine Saxifrage

Saxifraga rosacea ssp. hartii Irish Saxifrage

Schoenoplectus triqueter Triangular Club-rush

Simethis planifolia Kerry Lily

Spiranthes romanzoffiana Irish Lady’s-tresses

Stachys officinalis Betony

Trichomanes speciosum Killarney Fern

Trifolium glomeratum Clustered Clover

Trifolium subterraneum Subterranean Clover

Trollius europaeus Globeflower

Vicia orobus Wood Bitter-vetch

Viola hirta Hairy Violet

Viola lactea Pale Dog-violet


 Important notice
This leaflet is intended for guidance and information and whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the information it contains is as accurate as possible, it should not be taken as a definitive statement of the law, nor can responsibility be accepted for any errors or omissions.

Text by Margaret Palmer and Katherine Hearn

This WWW page produced from the original by the British Pteridological Society. It is essentially identical to the leaflet with minor formatting changes and address updates.

Illustration of Fritillaria meleagris from Flowers of the Field by Rev. C.A. Johns

Copies of the original leaflet can be obtained from the Botanical Society of the British Isles, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD

Published with the generous support of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Original content © Botanical Society of the British Isles 1999; this WWW presentation © British Pteridological Society 2000.