International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

Article 9. What does not constitute published work. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 8, none of the following constitutes published work within the meaning of the Code:

9.1. after 1930 handwriting reproduced in facsimile by any process;


9.2. photographs as such;

9.3. proof sheets;

9.4. microfilms;

9.5. acoustic records as such made by any method;

9.6. labels of specimens;

9.7. copies obtained on demand of an unpublished work [Art. 8], even if previously deposited in a library or other archive;

9.8. text or illustrations distributed by means of electronic signals (e.g. by means of the World Wide Web); or

9.9. abstracts of articles, papers, posters, texts of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congresses.

Recommendation 9A. Authors to avoid unintentional publication in abstracts. Authors submitting abstracts of conference papers primarily for issue to participants, should ensure that names and acts affecting zoological nomenclature in such works are not liable to unintended publication. They should ensure that volumes of abstracts contain appropriate disclaimers [Art. 8.2].


9.2. after 1985, works produced by hectographing or mimeographing;

9.3. before 1986 and after 2012, works issued on optical discs;

9.4. photographs as such;

9.5. proof sheets;

9.6. microfilms;

9.7. acoustic records made by any method;

9.8. labels of specimens;

9.9. preliminary versions of works accessible electronically in advance of publication (see Article 21.8.3);

9.10. materials issued primarily to participants at meetings (e.g. symposia, colloquia, congresses, or workshops), including abstracts and texts of presentations or posters;

9.11. text or illustrations distributed by means of electronic signals (e.g. via the Internet), except those fulfilling the requirements of Articles 8.1 and 8.5.

9.12. facsimiles or reproductions obtained on demand of an unpublished work [Art. 8], even if previously deposited in a library or other archive.

Example: A Ph.D. thesis that was distributed only to members of the student’s thesis committee is listed for sale in the catalogue of a print-on-demand publisher. The print-on-demand work is a reproduction of the thesis. Because the thesis was an unpublished work in its original form, it remains unpublished. If an editorial process was evident in converting the work to print-on-demand form (e.g., change to single spacing, repagination, addition of running headers), it might be considered published.

Recommendation 9A. Avoidance of new names and acts in meeting abstracts. Authors should not include new names and nomenclatural acts in abstracts of papers or posters to be presented at meetings. This avoids the appearance that they are published and prevents inadvertent publication if the abstracts are widely distributed. (For disclaimer of abstracts volumes, see Recommendation 8G.)