International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
 INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE online

Contents

Title pages

Explanatory Note on the Code

Preface to the Fourth Edition

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Introduction

Preamble

show Chapter 1 sections

Chapter 1: Zoological nomenclature

show Chapter 2 sections

Chapter 2: The number of words in the scientific names of animals

show Chapter 3 sections

Chapter 3: Criteria of publication

show Chapter 4 sections

Chapter 4: Criteria of availability

show Chapter 5 sections

Chapter 5: Date of publication

show Chapter 6 sections

Chapter 6: Validity of names and nomenclatural acts

show Chapter 7 sections

Chapter 7: Formation and treatment of names

show Chapter 8 sections

Chapter 8: Family-group nominal taxa and their names

show Chapter 9 sections

Chapter 9: Genus-group nominal taxa and their names

show Chapter 10 sections

Chapter 10: Species-group nominal taxa and their names

show Chapter 11 sections

Chapter 11: Authorship

show Chapter 12 sections

Chapter 12: Homonymy

show Chapter 13 sections

Chapter 13: The type concept in nomenclature

show Chapter 14 sections

Chapter 14: Types in the family group

show Chapter 15 sections

Chapter 15: Types in the genus group

Chapter 16: Types in the species group

  

Article 71. Application

  

Article 72. General provisions

  

  

72.1. Use of the term "type" relating to specimens

  

  

72.2. Fixation of the name-bearing types from type series of nominal species-group taxa established before 2000

  

  

72.3. Name-bearing types must be fixed originally for nominal species-group taxa established after 1999

  

  

72.4. Type series

  

  

72.5. Eligibility as name-bearing types

  

  

72.6. Specimens that are already name-bearing types

  

  

72.7. Name-bearing types of nominal species-group taxa denoted by new replacement names (nomina nova)

  

  

72.8. Name-bearing types of nominotypical subspecies

  

  

72.9. Union of nominal species-group taxa

  

  

72.10. Value of name-bearing types

  

Article 73. Name-bearing types fixed in the original publication (holotypes and syntypes)

  

  

73.1. Holotypes

  

  

73.2. Syntypes

  

  

73.3. Hapantotypes

  

Article 74. Name-bearing types fixed subsequently from the type series (lectotypes from syntypes)

  

  

74.1. Designation of a lectotype

  

  

74.2. Lectotype found not to have been a syntype

  

  

74.3. Designation to be individual

  

  

74.4. Designation by means of an illustration or description

  

  

74.5. Lectotype designations before 2000

  

  

74.6. Fixation of lectotype by inference of "holotype" or "the type" before 2000

  

  

74.7. Lectotype designations after 1999

  

Article 75. Neotypes

  

  

75.1. Definition

  

  

75.2. Circumstances excluded

  

  

75.3. Qualifying conditions

  

  

75.4. Priority

  

  

75.5. Replacement of unidentifiable name-bearing type by a neotype

  

  

75.6. Conservation of prevailing usage by a neotype

  

  

75.7. Status of neotypes designated before 1961

  

  

75.8. Status of rediscovered former name-bearing types

  

Article 76. Type locality

  

  

76.1. Definition

  

  

76A. Type localities

  

  

76.2. Type locality determined by the lectotype

  

  

76.3. Type locality determined by the neotype

show Chapter 17 sections

Chapter 17: The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

show Chapter 18 sections

Chapter 18: Regulations governing this code

Glossary

Summary

Appendices

Appendix A: Code of Ethics

Appendix B: General Recommendations

Constitution of the ICZN

Index

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