International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature


Title pages

Explanatory Note on the Code

Preface to the Fourth Edition

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Chapter 1: Zoological nomenclature

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Chapter 2: The number of words in the scientific names of animals

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Chapter 3: Criteria of publication

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Chapter 4: Criteria of availability

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Chapter 5: Date of publication

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Chapter 6: Validity of names and nomenclatural acts

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Chapter 7: Formation and treatment of names

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Chapter 8: Family-group nominal taxa and their names

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Chapter 9: Genus-group nominal taxa and their names

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Chapter 10: Species-group nominal taxa and their names

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Chapter 11: Authorship

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Chapter 12: Homonymy

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Chapter 13: The type concept in nomenclature

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Chapter 14: Types in the family group

Chapter 15: Types in the genus group


Article 66. Application


Article 67. General provisions



67.1. Name-bearing types



67.2. Species eligible for type fixation (originally included nominal species)



67.3. Admissibiity of actions relevant to fixation



67.4. Type fixation



67.5. Designation



67.6. Fixations using incorrect spellings or unjustified emendations



67.7. Status of incorrect citations



67.8. Type species of nominal genus-group taxa denoted by new replacement names (nomina nova)



67.9. Misidentified type species



67.10. Union of nominal genus-group taxa



67.11. Nominal species that are already type species



67.12. Type species of nominal genera and subgenera first denoted by synonyms



67.13. Type species cited as deliberately used misapplications or misidentifications of previously established names



67.14. Type species disregarded in collective groups


Article 68. Type species fixed in the original publication



68.1. Order of precedence in ways of fixation



68.2. Type species by original designation



68.3. Type species by monotypy



68.4. Type species by absolute tautonymy



68.5. Type species by "Linnaean tautonymy"



68.6. Fixation of type species with names cited as deliberately used misapplications or misidentifications by previous authors


Article 69. Type species not fixed in the original publication



69.1. Type species by subsequent designation



69.2. Eligibility of species for type fixation



69.3. Type species by subsequent monotypy



69.4. "Fixation by elimination" excluded


Article 70. Identification of the type species



70.1. Correct identification assumed



70.2. Type fixation overlooked



70.3. Misidentified type species



70.4. Identification of type species by deliberate misapplication

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Chapter 16: Types in the species group

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Chapter 17: The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

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Chapter 18: Regulations governing this code




Appendix A: Code of Ethics

Appendix B: General Recommendations

Constitution of the ICZN