Title pages

Explanatory Note on the Code

Preface to the Fourth Edition

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Chapter 1: Zoological nomenclature

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Chapter 2: The number of words in the scientific names of animals

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Chapter 3: Criteria of publication

Chapter 4: Criteria of availability


Article 10. Provisions conferring availability



10.1. General conditions to be met



10.2. Availability of infrasubspecific names



10.3. Availability of names proposed for collective groups and ichnotaxa



10.4. Availability of names for divisions of genera



10.5. Availability of names of taxa later but not at first classified as animals



10.6. Effect of invalidity upon availability



10.7. Availability of names not listed in a relevant adopted Part of the List of Available Names in Zoology


Article 11. Requirements



11.1. Publication



11.2. Mandatory use of Latin alphabet



11.3. Derivation



11.4. Consistent application of binominal nomenclature



11.5. Names to be used as valid when proposed



11.6. Publication as a synonym



11.7. Family-group names



11.8. Genus-group names



11.9. Species-group names



11.10. Deliberate employment of misidentifications


Article 12. Names published before 1931



12.1. Requirements



12.2. Indications



12.3. Exclusions


Article 13. Names published after 1930



13.1. Requirements



13.2. Family-group names



13.3. Genus-group names



13.4. Combined description of new genus-group taxon and new species.



13.5. Combined description of new family-group taxon and new genus.



13.6. Exclusions


Article 14. Anonymous authorship of names and nomenclatural acts


Article 15. Names and nomenclatural acts published after 1960



15.1. Conditional proposal



15.2. Names published after 1960 with the term "variety" or "form" excluded


Article 16. Names published after 1999



16.1. All names: intention of authors to establish new nominal taxa to be explicit.



16.2. Family-group names: type genus to be cited



16.3. Genus-group names: ichnotaxa and collective groups



16.4. Species-group names: fixation of name-bearing types to be explicit


Article 17. Names found to denote more than one taxon, or taxa of hybrid origin, or based on parts or stages of animals or on unusual specimens


Article 18. Inappropriate and tautonymous names.


Article 19. Status of emendations, incorrect spellings, and mandatory changes



19.1. Unjustified emendations and incorrect spellings



19.2. Justified emendations



19.3. Multiple original spellings



19.4. Mandatory changes


Article 20. Genus-group names ending in -ites, -ytes, or -ithes given to fossils

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Chapter 5: Date of publication

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Chapter 6: Validity of names and nomenclatural acts

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Chapter 7: Formation and treatment of names

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Chapter 8: Family-group nominal taxa and their names

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Chapter 9: Genus-group nominal taxa and their names

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Chapter 10: Species-group nominal taxa and their names

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Chapter 11: Authorship

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Chapter 12: Homonymy

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Chapter 13: The type concept in nomenclature

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Chapter 14: Types in the family group

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Chapter 15: Types in the genus group

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Chapter 16: Types in the species group

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Chapter 17: The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

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Chapter 18: Regulations governing this code




Appendix A: Code of Ethics

Appendix B: General Recommendations

Constitution of the ICZN