Title pages

Explanatory Note on the Code

Preface to the Fourth Edition

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Chapter 1: Zoological nomenclature

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Chapter 2: The number of words in the scientific names of animals

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Chapter 3: Criteria of publication

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Chapter 4: Criteria of availability

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Chapter 5: Date of publication

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Chapter 6: Validity of names and nomenclatural acts

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Chapter 7: Formation and treatment of names

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Chapter 8: Family-group nominal taxa and their names

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Chapter 9: Genus-group nominal taxa and their names

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Chapter 10: Species-group nominal taxa and their names

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Chapter 11: Authorship

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Chapter 12: Homonymy

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Chapter 13: The type concept in nomenclature

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Chapter 14: Types in the family group

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Chapter 15: Types in the genus group

Chapter 16: Types in the species group


Article 71. Application


Article 72. General provisions



72.1. Use of the term "type" relating to specimens



72.2. Fixation of the name-bearing types from type series of nominal species-group taxa established before 2000



72.3. Name-bearing types must be fixed originally for nominal species-group taxa established after 1999



72.4. Type series



72.5. Eligibility as name-bearing types



72.6. Specimens that are already name-bearing types



72.7. Name-bearing types of nominal species-group taxa denoted by new replacement names (nomina nova)



72.8. Name-bearing types of nominotypical subspecies



72.9. Union of nominal species-group taxa



72.10. Value of name-bearing types


Article 73. Name-bearing types fixed in the original publication (holotypes and syntypes)



73.1. Holotypes



73.2. Syntypes



73.3. Hapantotypes


Article 74. Name-bearing types fixed subsequently from the type series (lectotypes from syntypes)



74.1. Designation of a lectotype



74.2. Lectotype found not to have been a syntype



74.3. Designation to be individual



74.4. Designation by means of an illustration or description



74.5. Lectotype designations before 2000



74.6. Fixation of lectotype by inference of "holotype" or "the type" before 2000



74.7. Lectotype designations after 1999


Article 75. Neotypes



75.1. Definition



75.2. Circumstances excluded



75.3. Qualifying conditions



75.4. Priority



75.5. Replacement of unidentifiable name-bearing type by a neotype



75.6. Conservation of prevailing usage by a neotype



75.7. Status of neotypes designated before 1961



75.8. Status of rediscovered former name-bearing types


Article 76. Type locality



76.1. Definition



76A. Type localities



76.2. Type locality determined by the lectotype



76.3. Type locality determined by the neotype

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Chapter 17: The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

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Chapter 18: Regulations governing this code




Appendix A: Code of Ethics

Appendix B: General Recommendations

Constitution of the ICZN