Article 70. Identification of the type species.

70.1. Correct identification assumed. It is to be assumed, in the absence of clear evidence to the contrary, that an author has identified the species correctly when he or she either

70.1.1. includes a previously established nominal species in a new nominal genus or subgenus, or

70.1.2. fixes such a species as the type species of a new or previously established nominal genus or subgenus.

70.2. Type fixation overlooked. If it is found that an earlier type species fixation has been overlooked, the overlooked fixation is to be accepted and any later fixations are invalid. If this is considered to cause instability or confusion the case is to be referred to the Commission for a ruling.

70.3. Misidentified type species. If an author discovers that a type species was misidentified (but for type species fixed by deliberately cited misidentifications, see Articles 11.10, 67.13 and 69.2.4), the author may select, and thereby fix as type species, the species that will, in his or her judgment, best serve stability and universality, either

70.3.1. the nominal species previously cited as type species [Arts. 68, 69], or

70.3.2. the taxonomic species actually involved in the misidentification. If the latter choice is made, the author must refer to this Article and cite together both the name previously cited as type species and the name of the species selected.

Examples. If the taxonomic species actually involved is selected, the designation could be made in the form "Type species now fixed (under Article 70.3 of the Code) as Aus bus Mulsant, 1844, misidentified as Xus yus Horn, 1873 in the original designation by Watson (1912)".

Stephens (1829) included "Staphylinus tristis Gravenhorst" in his new beetle genus Quedius; Curtis (1837) subsequently indicated that species to be the type, and this concept of Quedius has been accepted ever since. The description of "S. tristis" by Gravenhorst (1802) shows that he was dealing with a new species, but due to misidentification he applied to it the name of S. tristis Fabricius, 1792, which is a species now placed in a different staphylinid tribe. Faced with this misidentification, by then long known, Tottenham (1949) designated Staphylinus levicollis Brullé, 1832 as the type species, stating that this was the valid synonym of "Staphylinus tristis Gravenhorst, 1802, nec Fabricius, 1792". However, "S. tristis Gravenhorst" is not an available name or a stated misidentification [Art. 67.2.1], and in Opinion 1851 (1996) the Commission designated S. levicollis as the type species in order to maintain usage. Had there been no such ruling, under Article 70.3.2 an author would be able to designate S. levicollis as the type species without recourse to the Commission (such an action could not have been taken under previous editions of the Code).

70.4. Identification of type species by deliberate misapplication.

70.4.1. For the fixation, as the type species of a new nominal genus or subgenus, of a species included in the sense of an expressly stated misidentification of a previously established nominal species, see Articles 11.10 and 67.13.

70.4.2. For the subsequent fixation as the type species of a nominal genus or subgenus of a species which had been originally included in the sense of an expressly stated misidentification of a previously established nominal species, see Article 69.2.4.