Article 32. Original spellings.

32.1. Definition. The "original spelling" of a name is the spelling used in the work in which the name was established.

32.2. Correct original spelling. The original spelling of a name is the "correct original spelling", unless it is demonstrably incorrect as provided in Article 32.5.

32.2.1. If a name is spelled in more than one way in the work in which it was established, then, except as provided otherwise in this Article, the correct original spelling is that chosen by the First Reviser [Art. 24.2.3] (or, if applicable, by an original author when acting as First Reviser [Art. 24.2.4]).

32.2.2. A justified emendation [Art. 33.2.2] is treated as though it is a correct original spelling (and therefore takes the authorship and date of the original publication [Art. 19.2]).

32.3. Preservation of correct original spelling. The correct original spelling of a name is to be preserved unaltered, except where it is mandatory to change the suffix or the gender ending under Article 34 (for treatment of emendations and incorrect subsequent spellings see Articles 32.5, 33.2, 33.3, 33.4).

32.4. Status of incorrect original spellings. An original spelling is an "incorrect original spelling" if it must be corrected as required in Article 32.5. An incorrect original spelling has no separate availability and cannot enter into homonymy or be used as a substitute name.

32.5. Spellings that must be corrected (incorrect original spellings).

32.5.1. If there is in the original publication itself, without recourse to any external source of information, clear evidence of an inadvertent error, such as a lapsus calami or a copyist's or printer's error, it must be corrected. Incorrect transliteration or latinization, or use of an inappropriate connecting vowel, are not to be considered inadvertent errors.

32.5.1.1. The correction of a spelling of a name in a publisher's or author's corrigendum issued simultaneously with the original work or as a circulated slip to be inserted in the work (or if in a journal, or work issued in parts, in one of the parts of the same volume) is to be accepted as clear evidence of an inadvertent error.

Examples. If an author in proposing a new species-group name were to state that he or she was naming the species after Linnaeus, yet the name was published as ninnaei, it would be an incorrect original spelling to be corrected to linnaei. Enygmophyllum is not an incorrect original spelling (for example of Enigmatophyllum) solely on the grounds that it was incorrectly transliterated or latinized.

32.5.2. A name published with a diacritic or other mark, ligature, apostrophe, or hyphen, or a species-group name published as separate words of which any is an abbreviation, is to be corrected.

32.5.2.1. In the case of a diacritic or other mark, the mark concerned is deleted, except that in a name published before 1985 and based upon a German word, the umlaut sign is deleted from a vowel and the letter "e" is to be inserted after that vowel (if there is any doubt that the name is based upon a German word, it is to be so treated).

Examples. nuñezi is corrected to nunezi, and mjøbergi to mjobergi, but mülleri (published before 1985) is corrected to muelleri.

32.5.2.2. In a compound species-group name published as separate words that are deemed to form a single word [Art. 11.9.5], the component words are to be united without a hyphen.

Examples. bonae spei becomes bonaespei, terrae novae becomes terraenovae.

32.5.2.3. In a compound species-group name published as words united by an apostrophe or a hyphen, the words are to be united by removing the mark concerned (but see Article 32.5.2.4.3).

Examples. d'urvillei becomes durvillei, striato-radiatus becomes striatoradiatus.

32.5.2.4. In a compound species-group name of which the first part consists of an abbreviation in Latin letters, or a Latin letter or a number of Latin letters qualifying the second part, whether or not separated by punctuation or a hyphen, the parts are to be united as follows.

32.5.2.4.1. If any of the separate parts is an abbreviation of a name (or part of the name) of a place or a saint, it is to be written in full and united without any intervening mark.

Examples. s. johannis, s-johannis, st. johannis, and sti johannis become sanctijohannis; s. catharinae and variants become sanctaecatharinae; n. hollandiae is corrected to novaehollandiae.

32.5.2.4.2. If the abbreviation represents a title, function, rank or honour for the person named in the species-group name, it is to be omitted.

Example. R.P.Podae, a specific name dedicated to the Reverendissimus Pater (Most Reverend Father) Poda, becomes podae.

32.5.2.4.3. If the first element is a Latin letter used to denote descriptively a character of the taxon, it must be retained and connected to the remainder of the name by a hyphen.

Example. c-album, in Polygonia c-album, so named because a white mark on the wing of the butterfly is similar to the letter c.

32.5.2.4.4. If the first element is a Latin letter or group of Latin letters not identifiable as fitting into the preceding three categories, punctuation (if any) must be deleted and the components united.

Example. j-beameri, a specific name dedicated to Jack Beamer, becomes jbeameri.

32.5.2.5. In a species-group name first published with an initial upper-case letter the initial letter must be replaced with a lower-case letter; in a genus-group or family-group name, or name of a taxon above the family group, first published with a lower-case initial letter the initial letter must be replaced with an upper-case letter.

32.5.2.6. In a compound species-group name of which the first part consists of a numeral (representing a number, numerical adjective or numerical adverb), the numeral is to be written in full as a Latin word and united with the remainder without any intervening mark.

Example. 10-lineata becomes decemlineata.

32.5.2.7. In the case of a genus-group name or a species-group name first published in a Latin text and which because of the grammatical requirements of the Latin text is written otherwise than in the nominative singular, the spelling of the genus-group name is to be corrected to the nominative singular, and that of the species-group name corrected if necessary.

Examples. See the examples of "Diplotoxae" corrected to Diplotoxa and "Pavidam" corrected to pavida (Musca pavida) given in Articles 11.8.1 and 11.9.2 respectively.

32.5.3. A family-group name is an incorrect original spelling and must be corrected if it

32.5.3.1. has an incorrectly formed suffix [Art. 29.2], or

32.5.3.2. is formed from an unjustified emendation of a generic name (unless the unjustified emendation has become a substitute name), or

32.5.3.3. is formed from an incorrect subsequent spelling of a generic name [Art. 35.4.1], or

32.5.3.4. is formed from one of two or more original spellings of a genus-group name which was not that selected by the First Reviser [Art. 24.2.3].