Article 16. Names published after 1999.

16.1. All names: intention of authors to establish new nominal taxa to be explicit. Every new name published after 1999, including new replacement names (nomina nova), must be explicitly indicated as intentionally new.

Recommendation 16A. Means of explicitly indicating names as intentionally new. To avoid uncertainty about their intentions, authors proposing new names (nomina nova), including new replacement names, are advised to make their intentions explicit by using in headings, or at first use of new names in proposals, appropriate abbreviations of Latin terms such as "fam. nov.", "g. nov.", "sp. nov.", "ssp. nov.", or some strictly equivalent expression such as "new family", "new genus", "new species", "new subspecies", "n. fam.", "n. g.", "n. sp.", "n. ssp.", "nomen novum". The abbreviation "nom. nov." should only be used to indicate a new replacement name.

The term "stat. nov." should not be used. But when it has been used to indicate that the former name of an infrasubspecific entity is being applied to a species or subspecies an author should accept that this explicitly indicated its user's intention to establish the former name of the infrasubspecific entity as a new name (see Article 45.5.1).

16.2. Family-group names: type genus to be cited. In addition to satisfying the provisions of Articles 13-15, a new family-group name published after 1999 must be accompanied by citation of the name of the type genus (i.e. the name from which the family-group name is formed).

Recommendation 16B. To avoid ambiguity with possible homonyms and similar names, authors are advised, when citing the name of the type genus, to cite its authorship and date of publication and also a bibliographic reference to the work in which it was established.

16.3. Genus-group names: ichnotaxa and collective groups. For names proposed for ichnotaxa see Article 13.3.3; for names proposed for collective groups see Article 13.3.2.

16.4. Species-group names: fixation of name-bearing types to be explicit. Every new specific and subspecific name published after 1999, except a new replacement name (a nomen novum), for which the name-bearing type of the nominal taxon it denotes is fixed automatically [Art. 72.7], must be accompanied in the original publication

16.4.1. by the explicit fixation of a holotype, or syntypes, for the nominal taxon [Arts. 72.2, 72.3, 73.1.1, 73.2 and Recs. 73A and 73C], and,

16.4.2. where the holotype or syntypes are extant specimens, by a statement of intent that they will be (or are) deposited in a collection and a statement indicating the name and location of that collection (see Recommendation 16C).

Recommendation 16C. Preservation and deposition of type specimens. Recognizing that name-bearing types are international standards of reference (see Article 72.10) authors should deposit type specimens in an institution that maintains a research collection, with proper facilities for preserving them and making them accessible for study (i.e. one which meets the criteria in Recommendation 72F).

Recommendation 16D. Publication of information distinguishing type specimens. When providing information to distinguish the type specimen(s) from other specimens (Article 16.4.1) authors should include information such as specimen numbers and descriptions of labels (see Recommendations 73C and 73D for data recommended).

Recommendation 16E. Preference for holotype over syntypes. Whenever possible, authors should select a holotype rather than syntypes.

Recommendation 16F. Illustrations of type specimens. Whenever possible a holotype or syntypes should be illustrated, showing characteristic features of the taxon, in the work in which the new nominal taxon is established.