Article 1. Definition and scope.

1.1. Definition. Zoological nomenclature is the system of scientific names applied to taxonomic units (taxa; singular: taxon) of extant or extinct animals.

1.1.1. For the purposes of this Code the term "animals" refers to the Metazoa and also to protistan taxa when workers treat them as animals for the purposes of nomenclature (see also Article 2).

1.2. Scope.

1.2.1. The scientific names of extant or extinct animals include names based on domesticated animals, names based on fossils that are substitutions (replacements, impressions, moulds and casts) for the actual remains of animals, names based on the fossilized work of organisms (ichnotaxa), and names established for collective groups (see, in particular, Articles 10.3, 13.3.2, 23.7, 42.2.1, 66.1, 67.14), as well as names proposed before 1931 based on the work of extant animals.

1.2.2. The Code regulates the names of taxa in the family group, genus group, and species group. Articles 1-4, 7-10, 11.1-11.3, 14, 27, 28 and 32.5.2.5 also regulate names of taxa at ranks above the family group.

1.3. Exclusions. Excluded from the provisions of the Code are names proposed

1.3.1. for hypothetical concepts;

1.3.2. for teratological specimens as such;

1.3.3. for hybrid specimens as such (for taxa which are of hybrid origin see Article 17.2);

1.3.4. for infrasubspecific entities unless the name was subsequently deemed to be an available name under Article 45.6.4.1;

1.3.5. as means of temporary reference and not for formal taxonomic use as scientific names in zoological nomenclature;

1.3.6. after 1930, for the work of extant animals;

1.3.7. as modifications of available names [Art. 10] throughout a taxonomic group by addition of a standard prefix or suffix in order to indicate that the taxa named are members of that group.

Example. Herrera (1899) proposed that all generic names be prefixed by a formula to indicate the Class to which the genus belongs, so that, e.g. all generic names in Insecta would be prefixed by Ins-. Words so formed are "zoological formulae" (Opinion 72) and do not enter into zoological nomenclature.

1.4. Independence. Zoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature in that the name of an animal taxon is not to be rejected merely because it is identical with the name of a taxon that is not animal (see Article 1.1.1).

Recommendation 1A. Names already in use for taxa that are not animals. Authors intending to establish new genus-group names are urged to consult the Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum) and the Approved List of Bacterial Names to determine whether identical names have been established under the International Codes of Nomenclature relevant to those lists and, if so, to refrain from publishing identical zoological names.